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Make, More Electronics, 36 Illustrated Experiments That Explain Logic Chips, Amplifiers, Sensors and More Download PDF

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Make, More Electronics, 36 Illustrated Experiments That Explain Logic Chips, Amplifiers, Sensors and More Download PDF

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This book picks up where my previous introductory guide, Make: Electronics, left off. Here you will find topics that I did not explore in detail before and other topics that were not covered at all because I lacked sufficient space. You will also find that I go a little bit further into technicalities, to enable a deeper understanding of the concepts. At the same time, I have tried to make “Learning by Discovery” as much fun as possible. A few of the ideas here have been discussed previously in Make magazine, in very different forms. I always enjoy writing my regular column for Make, but the magazine format imposes strict limits on the wordage and the number of illustrations. I can provide much more comprehensive coverage in this book. I have chosen not to deal with microcontrollers in much depth because explaining their setup and programming language(s) in sufficient detail would require too much space. Other books already explain the various microcontroller chip families. I will suggest ways in which you can rebuild or simplify the projects here by using a microcontroller, but I will leave you to pursue this further on your own.

Contents Of The Book :

Chapter 1. Experiment 1: Sticky Resistance
I want to start with some simple entertainment, because I think electronics should always contain an
element of fun.
For this experiment, I’m going to use glue and cardboard. I realize that these materials are not
commonly used in electronics books, but they’re going to serve two purposes. First, they will remind
us that electricity isn’t necessarily confined to wires and boards. Second, the experiment will lead to
a deepening understanding of that most fundamental and vital component, the bipolar transistor. And
third, this experiment will lead into a general conversation about ions, resistance, and resistivity.
Chapter 2. Experiment 2: Getting Some Numbers
Here’s my plan. Looking ahead to the next experiments, I’m going to be showing you some
components that were not included in Make: Electronics. The first three will be:
Chapter 3. Experiment 3: From Light to Sound
In this experiment you’ll get acquainted with a phototransistor. Its symbol is shown in Figure 3-1,
looking very much like a bipolar NPN transistor. In fact, its collector and emitter serve the same
functions. The big difference is that the base is energized by incoming light, indicated by one or two
arrows pointing toward it.
Sometimes the circle around the symbol is omitted. Sometimes there may be a single zigzag arrow
instead of two straight arrows. These variations don’t indicate any difference in operation. However,
if a connection is shown protruding from the base, a base connection is available to supplement the
effect created by the incoming light. I’m just mentioning this so that you’ll recognize it if you see it. I
won’t be using that type of phototransistor in this book.
Chapter 4. Experiment 4: Measuring Light
Remember that you will find components for each experiment listed at the back of the book. See
Appendix B.
Check the very simple schematic in Figure 4-1, which looks quite similar to the circuit in Figure 2-8.
You can add it as a separate circuit to your breadboard, without dismantling the circuit that you built
in Experiment 3. Just move the phototransistor and the resistor farther down your breadboard.
Chapter 5. Experiment 5: That Whooping
Instead of using a phototransistor to adjust the voltage on the control pin of the 555 timer, you can use
the output from a second timer running at a much slower speed. This automates the up-and-down
shifts in sound frequency.
Chapter 6. Experiment 6: Easy On, Easy Off
You saw in the last two experiments that a phototransistor changes its output gradually in proportion
with the amount of light falling on it. This is a useful capability — although not as useful as it could
be. For practical purposes, we often want a light-sensitive gadget that has two precisely defined
states: “on” and “off.” An intrusion alarm, for instance, triggered by someone interrupting a light
beam, has to give a clear signal. It cannot function gradually or intermittently.
Chapter 7. Experiment 7: It’s Chronophotonic!
This experiment will make use of the information from previous experiments relating to transistors,
phototransistors, 555 timers, and comparators. 
Chapter 8. Experiment 8: Adventures in Audio
It’s time to venture into the fascinating world of analog devices. In an analog circuit, voltages can be
below zero, as well as above; they can fluctuate in mysterious and unpredictable ways; and the
voltage you get at the output can be 100 times the voltage at the input — or more.
Chapter 9. Experiment 9: From Millivolts to Volts
In the previous experiment, you determined that your electret was working. Now we can begin to
make it do something useful.
Chapter 10. Experiment 10: From Sound to Light
You can now create a noise-activated LED. Figure 10-1 shows the same circuit as before, with just
five components added. A photograph is included in Figure 10-2.
Chapter 11. Experiment 11: The Need for Negativity
Now that you’ve seen that an op-amp can amplify, I want to address two questions:
1. How can we determine how much it is amplifying?
2. How can the output become a more accurate copy of the input, so that if we listen to it through a
loudspeaker, the noise won’t sound scratchy?
In this experiment I’m going to guide you through the process of answering the first question. I’ll deal
with the second question in Experiment 12.
Chapter 12. Experiment 12: A Functional Amplifier
As you saw in Experiment 10, an LM741 is not appropriate to drive a loudspeaker, even through a
2N2222 transistor. Really the LM741 is intended to be a bare-bones preamplifier, which increases
the voltage from a very small input signal but cannot deliver significant power. A preamplifier is
often referred to as a “preamp.”
Chapter 13. Experiment 13: No Loud Speaking!
The culmination in this series of audio projects is a device that goes back to the concept of using
sound to switch something on and off. I showed how this could be done in Experiment 10, but I’m
going to take it much further, now. This project was inspired by a story about one of the pioneers of
analog integrated circuits.
Chapter 14. Experiment 14: A Successful Protest
First I will restate the problem. Using the original concept of the Noise Protest Device that I
developed in the previous experiment, if someone shouts loudly, the Protest Output will start and
never stop. How can I deal with this?
Chapter 15. Experiment 15: It’s All So ogical!
In Make: Electronics I provided an introduction to digital logic, but I avoided the more challenging
aspects, and I didn’t deal with components such as multiplexers or shift registers. Logic chips of this
kind are less widely used today than they used to be, but logic itself remains fundamental to all
computing devices. So let’s go deeper, now, into that world, to learn how it works — and have some
Chapter 16. Experiment 16: Enhanced ESP
Before providing you with a revised schematic, I’m going to start by spelling out the requirements in
words. I think a verbal description should always be the first step in developing a logic diagram.
Chapter 17. Experiment 17: Let’s Rock!
Rock, Paper, Scissors is a truly ancient, international game, but just in case you have somehow never
played it, I will recap the rules. 
Chapter 18. Experiment 18: Time to Switch
Figure 18-1 introduces a new concept. It shows how each logic gate can be emulated by a pair of
plain, ordinary switches, and each switch can be considered as an input to the gate.
Chapter 19. Experiment 19: Decoding Telepathy
Take a look at Figure 19-1, where I have redrawn the Telepathy Test logic diagram using a decoder
chip. Although this circuit now incorporates every possible feature that I talked about earlier, it
requires only three chips. A circuit doesn’t get much simpler than this.
Chapter 20. Experiment 20: Decoding Rock, Paper, Scissors
I invite you to inspect Figure 20-1. This circuit is the simplest way I could find to create a fullyfeatured version of the Rock, Paper, Scissors game, using two decoders to simplify the logic while
retaining switches to activate the LEDs and a beeper. 
Chapter 21. Experiment 21: The Hot Slot
Previously, I mentioned that because a coin has no memory, it has the same chance of showing heads
or tails every time you flip it.
Chapter 22. Experiment 22: Logically Audible
In this experiment I want to take a break from logic problems and probability. I’m going to show you
how to build something that is fun, weird, and simple (although later in the book, I’m going to find a
way to make it more complicated). 
Chapter 23. Experiment 23: A Puzzling Project
Here’s another relatively simple experiment with logic, enabling a two-player game that seems
deceptively easy — until you play it yourself.
Chapter 24. Experiment 24: Adding It Up
Before I move on from logic gates to other topics, I wouldn’t be doing a thorough job if I didn’t show
you the most fundamental logic application: adding numbers. 
Chapter 25. Experiment 25: Enhancing Your Adder
Adding a decimal output to your adder is an easier task than adding a decimal input, so I’ll deal with
the output first.
Chapter 26. Experiment 26: Running Rings
A ring counter is a type of counter that has “decoded outputs.” This means that it activates one pin at a
time, beginning with the pin that represents 0 and continuing up to a value that is limited by the
number of pins. After that, the cycle automatically repeats.
Chapter 27. Experiment 27: Shifting Bits
A counter with decoded outputs can be used for entertainment in games and flashing-light displays,
but perhaps you don’t always want single LEDs to flash in sequence. Perhaps you want to create a
sequence of your own.
Chapter 28. Experiment 28: The Ching Thing
In this experiment, you can build a device to display a pair of hexagrams in an electronic version of
the I Ching. I’m calling it the “Ching Thing.”
If these terms mean nothing to you, there is no cause for concern, as I will be explaining them almost
Chapter 29. Experiment 29: Common Sensors
In this and the next five experiments, I’m going to be discussing sensors. This is an exciting field,
because it’s still developing rapidly.
Chapter 30. Experiment 30: Hidden Detectors
Hall-effect sensors are all around you. When you close the lid of your laptop, probably a Hall sensor
under the plastic skin of the case detects the action and puts the computer into sleep mode. When you
switch on your pocket camera, a Hall sensor detects that the lens is fully extended. 
Chapter 31. Experiment 31: Electronic Optics
Two basic types of sensors are triggered by variations in light. There is the active type and the
passive type.
Chapter 32. Experiment 32: Enhancing Ovid
You’ll remember from Experiment 23 that I wanted a better way to distinguish between one player’s
token and the other player’s token when two people are playing Ovid’s Game. At that time, the best I
could do was to suggest that each person should identify himself by pressing a button.
Chapter 33. Experiment 33: Reading Rotation
Everyone is familiar with that old-school favorite, the potentiometer. In this book alone, I have used
maybe twenty trimmer potentiometers in the various circuits.
Chapter 34. Experiment 34: Ambient Sensing
In this section, I’m returning to the basic concept that I have used before, of choosing a random
number by stopping a fast timer at an arbitrary moment.
Chapter 35. Experiment 35: The LFSR
Let’s suppose we have a black box containing some kind of circuit that generates a stream of
numbers, without any influence from the environment. How would we decide if the stream is random?
Chapter 36. Experiment 36: The One-Person
Paranormal Paradigm
Here’s the plan. There will be a single LED behind a screen. An electronic circuit will switch the
LED on or off, and will then prompt the player to guess which state it is in — by using his psychic
powers, if he is fortunate enough to possess them.
The player will press a righthand button if he thinks the LED is on, or a lefthand button if he thinks the
LED is off. The circuit will tell him whether the guess was correct or incorrect, and the cycle will

Information Of The Book :

Title: Make, More Electronics, 36 Illustrated Experiments That Explain Logic Chips, Amplifiers, Sensors and More Download PDF
Language: English.
Size: 47.42 MB
Pages: 783
Year : 2014
Format: PDF.
Author:  Platt, Charles