Download Op Amps for Everyone, Second Edition PDF

In 1934, Harry Black[l] traveled by train/boat between his home in New York and his job at Bell Labs in New Jersey. The ship kept Harry calm, allowing him to do some thinking. Harry had a difficult problem to solve; when telephone lines are extended over long distances, they need amplifiers, and unreliable amplifiers limit telephone service. First of all, the initial reception is not good, but this issue is easily solved by the adjustment. Second, even when the amplifier is properly tuned, the gain is so high during field work that the sound is too low or the incoming speech is garbled. . Many attempts were made to make a stable amplifier, but temperature fluctuations and the high voltages received on telephone lines made it uncontrollable. Passive devices have better navigation characteristics than active devices, so if the value of the object based on the application can be obtained, the problem will be solved. During one of his cruises, Harry's creative brain came up with a new solution to the amplifier problem, and wrote down the solution while traveling on the ship. The solution is to first build an amplifier that has more gain than the required application. Then, some of the output signals of the amplifier are fed back to the input in such a way that the gain of the circuit (the circuit is an amplifier and a feedback element) depends on the feedback circuit rather than the gain of the pointer. Now the value of the circuit depends on the transient response rather than the active factor. This is called negative feedback, or the operating principle of modern operational amplifiers. Harry had recorded the first feedback circuit during the cruise. I'm sure random feedback circuits have been made before then, but the designers ignored the effect! I hear cries of anguish from amp managers and manufacturers. I think they said something like, "It's hard to get 30kHz (GBW) bandwidth, and now this idiot wants me to design an amplifier with 3MHz GBW. But, it will still get the benefit from the GBW circuit of 30kHz ." Well, time had proven Harry right, but there was one little thing Harry hadn't said very well, and that was the word oscillation. It seems that circuits made with large open loops sometimes react when the loop is closed. Many people studied the instability effect, and it was well understood in the 1940s, but solving stability problems involved long, tedious, and complex calculations. Many years have passed without anyone simplifying or clarifying the solution to the problem. In 1945, H.W. Bode presented a method for evaluating the stability of feedback systems using graphical methods. Until then, feedback analysis was done by multiplication and division, so calculating the transfer function was a time-consuming and difficult task. Remember, engineers didn't have calculators or computers until the 1970s. Bode introduced the log method that turned the complex mathematical process of calculating the stability of a feedback system into a simple and intuitive graphical analysis. Feedback system design is still complex, but it is no longer the art of a few electrical engineers locked in a small dark room. Any electrical engineer can use Bode's method to find the stability of a feedback circuit, so the feedback input in the machine began to grow. There were not many calls for electronic feedback design until computers and transducers developed.

**Contents Of The Book :**

1 The Op Amp's Place In The World

2 Review of Circuit Theory

3 Development of the Ideal Op Amp Equations

4 Single Supply Op Amp Design Techniques

5 Feedback and Stability Theory

6 Development of the Non Ideal Op Amp Equations

7 Voltage-Feedback Op Amp Compensation

8 Current-Feedback Op Amp Analysis

9 Voltage- and Current-Feedback Op Amp Comparison

10 Op Amp Noise Theory and Applications

11 Understanding Op Amp Parameters

12 Instrumentation: Sensors to A/D Converters

13 Wireless Communication: Signal Conditioning for IF Sampling

14 Interfacing D/A Converters to Loads

15 Sine Wave Oscillators

16 Active Filter Design Techniques

17 Circuit Board Layout Techniques

18 Designing Low-Voltage Op Amp Circuits

A Single-Supply Circuit Collection

B Single-Supply Op Amp Selection Guide

**Information Of The Book :**

Title: Op Amps for Everyone, Second Edition PDF

Size: 19 Mb

Pages: 469

Year : 2003

Format: PDF

Language : English

Author: Ron Mancini

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